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Driscoll Model
September 21, 2022
Author : Kristy

Trying to acquire knowledge about Driscoll's reflection model? It is regarded as a framework for reflection that delves into an excellent systematic strategy for guiding contemplation. However, this Driscoll Reflective Model depends on the three basic and mandatory queries that lead to success: What, So What, and Now What. Driscoll has described these 3 basic and mandatory queries for the acquisition of knowledge. Hence, let's discuss reflection first to have a clear knowledge of the Driscoll model.

Driscoll Model

Reflection is a basic and common method that is widely used in healthcare and social care. It is a practice review, in which students explain, analyze, assess, inform, and make improvements to their future practices. Simply said, reflection is the examination of previous deeds. And depending on it, making and adjusting future changes. As a result, it is known to be a user acquaintance for growth and development.

For deep and intentional thought, reflection employs a 5R framework. They are in the process of reporting, responding, relating, thinking, and rebuilding. This framework may be simply used to reflect on any individual situation.

Hence, the Driscoll model is one of the most popular models for reflection purposes.

Driscoll reflection model’s three fundamentals, necessary, and obligatory questions

One of the most fundamental and necessary models you'll ever come across for reflection is the Driscoll reflection model. It was created by Driscoll in 1994, 2004, and 2007. Terry Boston initially stated the three fundamental and required questions in 1970. Driscoll looked into these questions:

  • What?
  • So What?
  • Now What?

Driscoll linked these three fundamental, necessary, and obligatory questions to the phases of the exposure-acquisition cycle, and he later added trigger questions that needed to be answered to complete the cycle of reflection. The three queries were created in 1994, 2000, and 2007. The John Driscoll Model of reflection is one of the most fundamental and necessary models.

You may take this opportunity to analyze your acquaintances and acquire knowledge from them by answering these 3 queries. It is vital to describe the occasion or acquaintance before taking it up. Context is important. The user will have a deeper knowledge of what is happening as a result. By taking into account the "what" question, this is achieved. The user is prompted to reflect on the action done as a result of the reflection in the last stage. Should the way we act be changed? Is it essential to provide anything fresh? Is the current situation so advantageous that no adjustments are necessary?

Step 1: What?

To fulfil the requirements of the first stage of structured reflection, the account of inquiries must be finished:

  • What precisely did you do?
  • Was there anyone else involved?
  • Was it a favourable acquaintance? Or bad? Or perhaps both? And why is that?

Step 2: So, what?

To complete the second stage of the structured reflection, the account of questions must be addressed:

  • At the moment, what were your thoughts?
  • What's your response?
  • What made you act in this way?
  • Did your sentiments then match your current ones concerning the situation?
  • Were you having problems with your values?
  • Do you believe that a previous acquaintance impacted your acquaintance in this situation?
  • Who else was there? How did they react? What was their reaction? And what caused them to behave in this manner?

Step 3: Now what?

To complete the third stage of the structured reflection, the account of questions must be addressed:

  • What information have you gained as a result of thinking about this situation?
  • Could you have averted negative outcomes?
  • How did you think you could have done that?
  • If a similar situation occurred in the future, what would you do differently?
  • How could you improve your preparation for this?
  • What did you focus on last time that went wrong, and what will you focus on this time?

Once you've answered these three simple questions, you may move on to analyzing your acquaintance. This first step is straightforward but essential since it will give you a clear picture of the situation you will be in.

Driscoll Model 3 queries in 1970

Driscoll's Model Evaluation

Despite not being the most generally used, the Driscoll reflection model has several benefits, mainly because it is straightforward. The 3-stage strategy is less complicated and easier to remember than other approaches. It's more probable that you'll use a tool or framework frequently if it's easy to use.

Which Fields Apply the Driscoll Reflective Model?

Reflective models are widely utilized in a variety of areas where an individual's talents influence their performance or completion of tasks when there is no straightforward standardization of methods. Because the Driscoll model is one of several that may be employed, it can be applied in a variety of scenarios.

Driscoll's model may be used for any of these since it is a general model that lacks components unique to each subject or profession. It is worth mentioning, however, that the model was developed with clinical practice scenarios in mind. As a result, it is not unexpected that the paradigm is most typically encountered in clinical/medical settings.

How Do You Apply the Driscoll Reflective Model to Academic Writing?

When prompted to reflect on an occurrence throughout your nursing course, you can adopt this approach on account of the steps outlined below:

  1. Understand the topic of the assignment thoroughly so that you can proceed with the appropriate approach.
  2. Select a reflective cycle model. While there are others, because of its simplicity, Driscoll is the most widely used model.
  3. Take a piece of blank paper and jot down the 3 primary queries, or phases, of this model. "WHAT," "SO WHAT," and "NOW WHAT" are examples.
  4. Brainstorm, study, discuss, and eventually come up with responses to the 3 queries about your acquaintance listed above.
  5. After you've answered these, delve further into each area and answer the remaining queries in each.

What are its Benefits and Drawbacks of it?

In this part, we will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of employing the Driscoll reflective cycle for your assignment:


  • Has the advantage of producing speedy results.
  • Fairly a straightforward procedure.
  • Simple to memorize and use.
  • Functions similarly to basic and mandatory queries.


  • Does not allow for a more in-depth reflection.
  • Incompatible with layered or substantial reflection.

This approach has just two drawbacks and five major benefits. As a result, it is the best model for including comments on your nursing practices within your project.

Also Read: How to Start a Reflection Paper?

Do You Need Help with Writing Essay on Driscoll Model of Reflection?

The Driscoll model of reflection is a mechanism of essay writing and many scholars find it typical. That's why several students seek essay writing help in Canada to get their academic essays finished to the highest standards. The Canadian subject matter experts at My Assignment Services provide 24*7 academic support so that you can obtain a clear understanding of this reflective model. Through one-to-one live sessions, we will resolve all your questions regarding essay writing based on the Driscoll model. Fill out the form and upload your assessment task. Our Essay Writing Help experts in Canada will connect with you in the shortest time!

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About the Author


Hi! I am a passionate writer with 3 years of experience in academic writing and over 2 years of experience as a professional blogger. I aim to provide academic solutions which add to the grades of the students as well as to their learning. I’m working with My Assignment Services since 3 years, during which I have always worked for the benefit of the students by providing them quality work.


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