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Summary of the Main Ideas of the Chosen Articles

The lifestyle modifications made by patients with type 2 diabetes after their diagnosis were looked at in the Chong et al. (2017) study. Participants who had recently been diagnosed with the condition and those who had not received a type 2 diabetes diagnosis made up the study cohort. The participants were randomly chosen from a database maintained by Medicare Australia and followed up for two to five years. In contrast to individuals who had never been diagnosed with the condition, patients who had recently been given a type 2 diabetes diagnosis reported much higher weight loss and a more minor fall in vegetable consumption, according to the study.

The amount of walking, standing, or sitting between the two groups did not, however, differ significantly. The study also discovered that some lifestyle modifications were related to how long it had been since the diagnosis. For instance, individuals with longer histories of diabetes were more likely to experience weight increases, engage in less physical activity, and have lower odds of putting an end to habit of smoking. In order to help patients with type 2 diabetes facilitate and maintain lifestyle changes, the study emphasized the significance of systematic education in pateints suffering from diabetes and ongoing support. In order to support patients in maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours, it was also emphasized how important it is to address psychological obstacles and offer tools related to self-motivational. The study acknowledged the drawbacks of using self-reported data for diagnostic and lifestyle factors as well as the short testing windows.

The effectiveness of traditional group education (TE) versus education using diabetes conversation maps (CM) for diabetes self-management education was compared in this study by Adam et al. (2018). After the teaching sessions, the study attempted to ascertain changes in hemoglobin A1C (A1C), knowledge, attitude, and behaviour (KAB). The CM or TE group received one of the 21 total participants that were chosen at random. Questionnaires were used to track changes in knowledge and attitude, while lab results were used to track changes in A1C. After three months, the A1C levels in both groups were significantly decreased. Both post-test 1 and post-test 2 knowledge scores significantly improved for the CM group, while they only slightly improved for the TE group.

Additionally, the CM group significantly improved their attitude scores compared to the TE group, which did not. Focus groups' common themes, such as the advantages of early education, the necessity of specialized education, and the significance of numerous lifestyle behaviour adjustments, were identified through a qualitative analysis of the data. The CM group also identified the themes of experiential learning, self-directed learning, sentiments of social support, and visualization of specific needs for diabetes control. The TE group lamented the lack of group interaction and poor involvement. Overall, the study discovered that CM had a significant impact on diabetes education and was successful for group education. According to the research, CM can enhance diabetic self-management, which will decrease health problems and expenses related to poorly controlled diabetes. More investigation is required to compare various delivery strategies and assess the long-term impacts of diabetes self-management education.

The Canadian Public Health Agency of Canada, in the study by Lemieux et al. (2020), developed and validated the Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK) to evaluate the risk of type 2 diabetes in Canadian individuals. Different national stakeholders, such as Diabetes Canada, have distributed CANRISK throughout Canada. The tool's purpose is to identify people who have prediabetes and motivate them to adopt healthy lifestyle changes in order to either prevent or postpone the onset of the condition and its problems. CANRISK, in contrast to the majority of other diabetes risk assessment systems, considers ethnicity as a significant risk factor. The tool was created with the help of a sizable multiethnic sample of Canadians, and it has been tested on a variety of communities, including the Inuit, First Nations and Metis, and South Asian populations.

In comparison to other diabetes screening instruments used globally, CANRISK has been found to function effectively. It has been widely utilized in numerous research studies to evaluate diabetes risk variables and has been translated into a number of languages. Several organizations in Canada, including Diabetes Canada, the Canadian Pharmacists Association, and Toronto Public Health, are promoting it. It is freely accessible in 13 languages.

CANRISK has been successful in increasing public knowledge of the risk of diabetes, although there is still potential for improvement. The existing underrepresentation of some ethnic age categories in the CANRISK sample reduces the precision of risk estimates for these populations. Furthermore, the measure's effectiveness as a screening tool in a clinical environment has yet to be studied.

Relation to the Chosen PICO Question

The recommendations from these three study studies underline the significance of specialized lifestyle interventions and education programs for patients with type 2 diabetes, which may result in a considerable improvement in several dimensions of diabetes management and general quality of life. By implementing a customized lifestyle intervention program that takes into consideration factors like personal risk profiles, cultural backgrounds, and specific requirements, Canadians with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be able to lead a higher quality of life. By addressing factors including diet and physical exercise, and other choices related to the lifestyle of an individual, personalized therapies may improve type 2 diabetes patients' quality of life by improving disease management, glucose control, and general well-being. However, in order to evaluate the effectiveness and longevity of these treatments, it is essential comparing the long-term outcomes of alternative treatments or traditional care.


Adam, L., O'Connor, C., & Garcia, A. C. (2018). Evaluating the impact of diabetes self-management education methods on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 42(5), 470-477.

Chong, S., Ding, D., Byun, R., Comino, E., Bauman, A., & Jalaludin, B. (2017). Lifestyle changes after a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 30(1), 43-50.

Lemieux, C. L., DeGroh, M., Gibbons, L., Morrison, H., & Jiang, Y. (2020). A tool to assess risk of type 2 diabetes in Canadian adults. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 44(5), 445-447.

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